"Detail Science" is a concept created by Stephen Widener. Currently, "Detail Science" includes Data Observation and Data Reporting.
Data Observation is a way to physically observe what may be lacking or missing in a data reporting operation. Sometimes, current reporting methods being used by companies do not capture the information that is needed. Other times, current data reporting might be capturing the data but either (1) not presenting it properly or (2) not delivering the proxy information that can be acted on. In both of these cases, as well as others, there is a need to improve the data reporting infrastructure, or create it if none exists.
Data Reporting is just that. Reporting. It is the way that data is organized for delivering actionable information to the stakeholders in the company. Data Reporting covers every thing from reviewing database design to testing initial reporting structures and then producing and verifying accuracy of new reports.